28/09/2021

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ALL ABOUT 5G TECHNOLOGY

5G technology

5G technology is a breakthrough. Subsequently,the next-generation of telecom networks (fifth generation or 5G) has started hitting the market end of 2018 and will continue to expand worldwide.

Past speed improvement, this innovation will release a huge 5G IoT (Internet of Things) environment.  Here networks can certainly fulfill the correspondence needs for unlimited gadgets, with an appropriate trade-off between time-interval, speed, and cost.

Following are the requirements to drive a 5G technology

  • Up to 10Gbps data rate – > 10 to 100x speed improvement over 4G and 4.5G networks
  • 1-millisecond latency
  • 1000x bandwidth per unit area
  • Up to 100x number of connected devices per unit area (compared with 4G LTE)
  • 999% availability
  • 100% coverage
  • 90% reduction in network energy usage
  • Up to 10-year battery life for low power IoT device

How fast is 5G?

5G provides the internet at 10 gigabits per second (Gbps) rate. In other words,It makes 5G technology 10 to x100 more efficient as compared to 4G

5G speed

According to communication principles, the shorter the frequency, the larger the bandwidth.

The use of shorter frequencies (millimeter waves between 30GHz and 300GHz) for 5G networks is why 5G can be faster. This high-band 5G spectrum provides an increase in not only speed but also in capacity, low latency, and quality. However, The download speed for 5G technology may be different according to the area of service.

Fortune Magazine in February 2020, wrote in an article that the average 5G analysis of speed done in Q3/Q4 2019 vary from:

  • 220 megabytes per second (Mbps) in Las Vegas,
  • 350 in New York,
  • 380 in Los Angeles,
  • 450 in Dallas,
  • 550 in Chicago,
  • over 950 in Minneapolis and Providence approximately.

That is to say,that’s 10 to 50 times more than 4G LTE.

 What is 5G low latency? 

With 5G technology, you experience an extremely low latency rate. It has  improved from 400 milliseconds offered in 4G technology to 1 milliseconds 5G technology offered by 4G technology

The average reaction time for humans to a visual stimulus is 250 ms or 1/4 of a second. However, this time can increase around 190-200 ms in humans that too with proper training.

5G use cases

Use cases associated with low latency are:

  • V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) communication: V2V: (Vehicle-to-Vehicle), V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure), autonomous, connected cars
  • Immersive Virtual Reality Gaming (5G will bring VR to the masses.)
  • Remote surgical operations (aka telesurgery)
  • Simultaneous translating.

In other words, 5G and IoT create the perfect match.

5G vs. 4G – What is the difference?

The 5th technology deals with the evolution beyond mobile internet to massive IoT (Internet of Things).

The main evolution compared with today’s 4G and 4.5G (aka LTE advanced, LTE-A, LTE+ or 4G+) is that, beyond data speed improvements, new IoT and critical communication use cases will require a new standard of improved performance .For example, low latency provides real-time interactivity for services using the cloud: this is key to the success of self-driving cars, for example.

Moreover, 5G tends to offer around 100X offers multiple times more device connection capabilities. 5G should have the option to support around one million gadgets for a distance of 1 km2 or 0.386 square miles.Also, low power consumption is what will allow connected objects to operate for months or years without the need for human assistance.

5D services, as opposed to the contemporary networking that creates a performance trade-off to acquire the 100% outcome from wireless innovations (3G, 4G, Wi-fi, etc) will be invented such as to bring the level of performance required for massive IoT. It commits to establishing a perceived completely connected networking world-wide.

What are the real 5G use cases?

Each new generation wireless network came with a new set of new usages. The next coming 5G will make no exception and will focus on IoT and critical communications applications.

In terms of the schedule, we can mention the following uses cases over time:

  • Massive M2M / IoT (from 2021-2022)
  • Ultra low-latency IoT critical communications (from 2024-2025)

Some critical applications like self-driving cars require very aggressive latency (fast response time) while they do not require fast data rates.

The company’s cloud base services that have large data analysis will need improvements in speed more than improvements in latency.

How fast will 5G take-up be?

The projected adoption rate for 5G differs drastically from all previous generation networks (3G, 4G).While previous technology drove by mobile internet usage and the availability of “killer apps,” 5G will mainly operate by new IoT usages, such as connected and self-driving cars, for example.

It is also a thought that the proportion of 5G users will mushroom rapidly throughout the world. The amount will increase from around 200 million users in 2019 to more than1,02 Billion in 2023 (Fortune Feb. 2020).As per the Ericsson report, issued in November 2020, 5G subscription data will hit a figure of 3.5 billion in 2026. This will make it the most rapidly fastest generation to ever spread-out globally.

What are the implications of 5G for mobile operators?

5G is still a cellular broadband technology and is a network of networks. To build and operate networks, the knowledge and proficiency of MNOs will be the key factor in the success of 5G networking. MNOs will have the capacity to create and operate new IoT devices, other than giving networking services.Implementing 5G networks while keeping 3G and 4G networks operational will likely trigger a new challenge for MNOs regarding the ability of frequencies in the spectrum (mainly if the forecasted massive volume on IoT occurs).

MNOs will need to operate a new spectrum in the 6 to 300 GHz range (typical 5G bandwidth), which means massive network infrastructure investments. To hit the target of 1ms latency, 5G entail connectivity for the grounding station using optical fibers.The purpose of 5G to aid virtual networks like “low power low throughput” (LPLT) for low-cost IoT on the cost savings side. Today, LORA network seperately addresses this need.

What’s the relation between 5G and satellites?

The space-based mode of communication of 5G networks will be extensively famous in no time. Indeed, a new generation of satellites will bring onboard 5G capabilities to ensure full 5G coverage of the Earth, in addition to the terrestrial mobile 5G networks.

Moreover, in addition to capabilities of broadcasting and multi-broad casting, these satellite-based networks will also ensure enhanced resilience, availability, and reliability. We believe that the 5G network will effectively support a wide range of applications covering diverse dimensions, for instance, health, agriculture, etc, and will connect the world.

Along with space and mobile phone manufacturers, Thales Alenia Space supports the efforts of 3GPP to develop solutions embracing the vision of a single global space-based network fully integrated with mobile operators 5G networks. Lately South Korean operator KT SAT, who happens to be the first-ever subsidiary of the 5G commercial service provider Korea Telecom, carried out the demonstration of satellite-based 5G networking with the geostationary. Koreasat 5A telecommunication satellite (manufactured by Thales Alenia Space) is designed to make 5G accessible under-privileged areas.

Will 5G technology be secure?

4G technology utilizes the USIM application to bring strong mutual authentication among the consumer and the networks and his or her connected devices . The host of this application maybe a demountable entity like a mobile SIM or an embedded UICC chip. This high level of authentication between the user and his network is an important driver of an untrusted network.

In the contemporary world, a perfect blend of security at the core (network) and edge (device) consequently brings security solutions.In the future, numerous security networks might run in parallel. While 5G networking most probably will re-utilize the currents solutions used by 4G and the cloud (SEs, HSM, certification, Over-The-Air provisioning, and KMS).

It was 2018 when the high mutual authentication standard for the 5G network was approved.The need for 5G security, privacy, and trust will be as strong as for 4G, if not stronger, with the increased impact of IoT services. The accessibility to a network can further be secured by local SEs like virtual networking for IoT and managing emergency calls.

5G networking foreshadows that it will by-pass all the older paradigms of data delivery by providing services everywhere. New business opportunities are driving data-in-motion security requirements to include:

  • network transparency,
  • low latency,
  • high-level bandwidth,
  • consistency in delivery,
  • and complete interoperability.

To fulfill this promise of data delivery, the design of 5G connectivity is already in progress. The older technologies in motion security methods are incapable of fulfilling these diverse needs.

Moreover, the traditional technologies are unable to meet current requirements of auditable compliance and the threat of quantum devices shortly. Some 5G connectivity challenges that need imperative attention include security, performance, interoperability, and compliance audit.Hence, to adjust the diversity in 5G networking,there is  a need of a  strong intelligent data-in-motion security solution.